Digital Retouching

See the book for a full discussion of digital tools and techniques for retouching images, including traditional print retouching using liquid dyes and watercolors, digitally retouching blemishes, scratches, and dust using digital brushes, the Clone Stamp tool, the Patch tool, and filters, as well as methods of erasing, sharpening, and softening pixels. 

Red Eye

A camera's flash can cause red-eye when light reflects from the red blood vessels that line the eye's retina. The Red Eye tool allows you to blacken undesirable red areas. To use, first zoom in closer onto the red eye. Select the Red Eye tool (one of the hidden tools within the Spot Healing Brush tools panel). Set the Pupil Size (the size of area to be darkened) and the Darken Amount (the darkness of the color that replaces the red) in the options bar, then click the tool on the red area of the eye. If the tool darkens too much of the eyes, try creating a circular selection around the pupil before you apply the Red Eye tool. If you find that the tool still darkens too great an area, use a selection tool to select a particular part of the red eye before clicking with the Red Eye tool.

Retouching Resources

John R.Podracky
, Photographic Retouching and Air-Brush Techniques (Englewood Cliffs, NJ Prentice-Hall, Inc. 1980).
Veronica Cass Weiss
, Retouching from Start to Finish (Hudson, Florida: VC Publishing. 1986). Includes in-depth details on removing facial blemishes, airbrushing, retouching negatives.
Katrin Eismann
, Photoshop Restoration & Retouching (Berkeley, CA: New Riders, third edition, 2006).
Conrad Chavez
and David Blatner, Real World Adobe Photoshop CS4 for Photographers (Berkeley, CA: Peachpit Press, 2008).
Barry Huggins
, Photoshop Retouching Cookbook for Digital Photographers: 113 Easy-to-Follow Recipes to Improve Your Photos and Create Special Effects (California: O’Reilly Media, Inc., 2005).

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